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Darin sollte mind. Recht Steuern Wirtschaft. Erschienen: Auf die Merkliste Drucken Weiterempfehlung. Davis Trade Unions in Russia and Ukraine lieferbar, ca. Hardcover Palgrave Macmillan. Produktbeschreibung As the Soviet Union collapsed, many scholars and policymakers predicted that the pillars of Communism would collapse along with the state. The official trade unions not only continued to exist but gained power in the late Soviet and post-Soviet period. The results suggest little evidence that our summary measure of campaign intensity operates either through differential supply shifts or through differential price increases.
However, we are hesitant to draw conclusions given the limitations of the state vodka production and alcohol price index data noted earlier. We emphasize that this is an important area for further research.
Trade Unions in Russia and Ukraine
However, our findings also do not necessarily imply that alcohol prohibition raises welfare in Russia or elsewhere , even if it saves lives. Health is only one argument of welfare, and health-improving restrictions on individual choices can cause harm as well as do good. All publicly available data digitized for this project is available upon request. We alone are responsible for the views in this paper as well as all errors.
Balan-Cohen finds superior health indicators among children born during the campaign. Recent estimates suggest that alcohol abuse is responsible for more than half of all deaths in Russian cities among those ages 15—54 Leon et al. There were more extreme efforts to obtain alcohol as well: sales of alcohol-based glue increased from to tons between and ; sales of glass cleaners rose from 6, to 7, tons over the same period; and there was large-scale theft of industrial alcohol Treml In addition to true administrative oblasts, our dataset contains 22 krai and autonomous republics as well.
For simplicity, we generically refer to all of these regions as oblasts. We exclude autonomous okrugs from our analysis because information about them is not available for a number of years; we also exclude Chechnya and Ingushetia typically reported together as Chechnya-Ingush prior to because of war-related inconsistencies in the data. We repeat the analyses shown in Table 3 excluding these oblasts — Appendix Table 1 shows that the results are similar. Cause of death records are generally less reliable than other types of mortality data, so we emphasize our crude death rate analyses but supplement them with analyses of cause-specific mortality.
Beginning in , it also excludes alcohol sales at private trade outlets and restaurants. Data for cognac and champagne sales data are only available beginning in the late s although they constitute a small share of total sales.
Finally, it does not measure quality. According to the Russian Trade Committee, the share of alcoholic beverages rejected as substandard was 5. Petersburg city, and Yaroslav.
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Using the variance of official alcohol sales for years in our dataset and assuming the variance of samogon to remain constant over time, we calculate implied regression coefficients for each year — We then use these year-specific regression coefficients and our oblast-year official sales data to predict total alcohol consumption including samogon.
In Section III we investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with variation in campaign intensity. While the TSLS estimates generally corroborate our reduced-form findings available upon request , they only identify the contemporaneous mortality effect of the campaign and ignore important dynamic effects which our reduced-form approach captures. These implied changes in crude death are then scaled by the size of the Russian population in ,, to obtain implied deaths averted.
For , , , and , this is: ,; ,; ,; and , deaths averted respectively. Summing over campaign years yields 1,, averted deaths. We calculated the number of implied excess deaths by first multiplying coefficient estimates for interactions between pre-campaign mean alcohol consumption and year dummies with median pre-campaign consumption, yielding implied changes in crude death rates. For , , , and , this is: 0. These implied changes in crude death rates are then scaled by the population in to obtain implied excess deaths.
For , , , and , this is: 99,; ,; ,; and , excess deaths respectively , totaling 2,, deaths. The underlying logic is that former Soviet states with relatively more Muslims should experience smaller absolute declines in deaths during the campaign and smaller increases in mortality during transition years.
Using archival sources to build a new oblast-year data set spanning , we find a variety of evidence suggesting that the campaign's end explains a large share of the mortality crisis - implying that Russia's transition to capitalism and democracy was not as lethal as commonly suggested. The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article.
Am Econ J Appl Econ. Author manuscript; available in PMC Nov 6. PMID: Corresponding author. Jay Bhattacharya: ude. Copyright notice.
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See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign By the early s, alcohol abuse was widely recognized as a major cause of death, absenteeism, and low labor productivity in the Soviet Union. The Demise of the Anti-Alcohol Campaign The Soviet Central Committee officially ended the anti-alcohol campaign in October because of its unpopularity and the loss of revenue from alcohol sales.
Data and Empirical Strategy We used archival sources to create a new panel data set covering 77 Russian oblasts between and Vital Records Our core mortality variables are crude death rates per 1, population, and alcohol poisoning death rates by gender per , population. Alcohol Sales As the sole legal producer and distributor of alcohol in the Soviet Union, the government maintained records of alcohol sales in liters for principal alcoholic beverages vodka, beer, wine, cognac, and champagne.
Alcohol Production and Prices Prior to , the Soviet government controlled alcohol production and set prices administratively i. Other Covariates Some of our analyses control for other determinants of mortality and for other factors proposed to explain the Russian mortality crisis. Estimating Total Alcohol Consumption Including Samogon Official alcohol sales data do not accurately reflect total alcohol consumption because many Russians make samogon at home. Empirical Strategy Our empirical approach estimates the relationship between the Anti-Alcohol Campaign and both a contemporaneous mortality during campaign years and b subsequent mortality during transition years using a reduced-form approach.
Graphical Evidence Before turning to econometric results, we first use our data set to examine graphical relationships between the anti-alcohol campaign and Russian crude death rates. Figure 2. Results A. Russian Mortality during the Anti-Alcohol Campaign Alcohol Consumption and Mortality In estimating equation 1 , we assume that oblasts with higher pre-campaign alcohol consumption i. Figure 3.
Cause-Specific Mortality Next, we examine changes in three groups of cause-specific death rates with differential relatedness to alcohol consumption. Figure 4. Figure 5. Robustness to Controlling for Local Economic Conditions We then consider alternative explanations for our main findings. Simulations and Cross-Country Evidence A. Figure 6. Supplementary Material Appendices Click here to view.follow link
The Gorbachev Anti-Alcohol Campaign and Russia’s Mortality Crisis - Europe PMC Article - Europe PMC
References Andreev Evgueni M. United Nations, editor. Health and Mortality: Issues of Global Concern. New York: United Nations; The Dynamics of Mortality in the Russian Federation. Andrienko Yuri, Guriev Sergei.
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